Engines, or motors as they are sometimes called, are complex machines that convert one or more forms of energy into mechanical energy. They find use in countless apparatuses, allowing systems to run optimally. Furthermore, they vary based on use, each featuring distinguishing characteristics. Marine engines in particular are just one type of motor that has a unique way of converting energy and generating rotation.
How Marine Engines Work
Marine engines are heat engines utilized for converting heat, which is produced by burning fuel, into useful work. On ships, marine engines are of the internal combustion variety wherein the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine cylinder and heat is generated after the combustion process. In fact, internal combustion engines are used mainly for marine propulsion and power generation purposes.
The working principle of marine engines begins with the controlled injection of fuel at high pressure. Next, a fuel-air mixture is compressed inside the engine cylinder with the help of a piston. Due to the compression, the mixture combusts and heat is released which increases the pressure of the burning gas. The increase in pressure forces the piston downwards and converts the transverse motion into the rotary motion of the crankshaft using a connecting rod configuration. The explosion process is repeated depending on the type of marine engine and its usage.
LH Rotation and RH Rotation
In terms of rotation, left hand (LH) rotation is generally considered the standard while right hand (RH) rotation is considered unconventional, or a “reverse” rotation. This can be easily determined by standing behind the engine and looking at the flywheel. In boats with twin engines, each engine turns in opposite directions so that the torque reactions of the engines cancel each other out.
Marine engines, like other engine types, have many components that allow them to function properly. For instance, fuel generators or propellers may be used in marine engines, but it is important to note that generators running on the marine engine cannot be switched around. Meanwhile, the propeller can rotate in one of two directions: counterclockwise or clockwise. Furthermore, there are a few ways in which the crankshaft and camshaft turn in four combinations of drives.
Some reverse rotation crankshafts are designed with oil holes that have been drilled symmetrically opposite to one another. The camshaft is not interchangeable between designs, so one must ensure they have the appropriate configuration for their engine. Regardless of the crank rotation, the distributor and oil pump turn in the same direction. This can be achieved by making the angle of the drive gear on the cam and its mating gear opposite, when the cam turns in the opposite direction. As a result of this design, thrust of the gears is produced in the opposite direction.
In the SE Chevy, for example, the thrust is up and is taken by the base of the distributor housing and the drive gear. If the cam rotation and gear angle are changed, the thrust will be down and there will be no provisions for this in a stock distributor. In this case, a ball bearing distributor or magneto is needed.
For marine engines to spin backwards, the angle of the drive gear on a camshaft must be modified as per the cam’s changing direction and its mating gear should be rotated in opposite directions. This enables the gears to make unconventional turns. You may ask yourself, “Do all boat motors take advantage of reverse rotation?” To answer this, one must understand that an engine rotates backwards when the prop is turned forward, with a convection in-line drive. By looking at your boat from behind, it is possible to utilize an RH propeller to turn the engine.
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