14 Essential Electronic Components and their Functions

All electronics must start with some source of power to operate. With this said, our first electronic component to discuss is the battery.

  • Batteries store and convert chemical energy into electrical energy. The chemical reactions in a battery involve the flow of electrons from one material (electrode) to another, through an external circuit. This flow of electrons provides an electric current that can be used to do work.
  • Once a battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy, it is then the Motor that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy that lastly, produces a working effect.Once power is generated, there are numerous components that involve the management of that power.
  • Transformers are comprised of two coils of wire that are used to step up or step down power.
  • Transistors consist of three terminals: a base; the emitter; and the collector. When voltage is applied to one of these terminals, control of current flow is achieved.
  • Resistors control how much flow takes place by resisting flow of current to a desired degree.
  • Capacitors are used to temporarily store electric charge through the use of electrolytic components and ceramic disks.
  • Inductors are passive components that store energy in the form of magnetic fields.
  • Diodes make it so electric currents can flow in a single direction only.
  • Fuses are used to preserve components from overloading with excessive current.
  • Switches interrupt current and Relays  are electromechanical switches that shut power on or off.
  • Microcontrollers are small computers embedded inside devices to control the actions and features of products like power tools, remote controls, medical equipment and office machines.
  • Integrated Circuits are small chips that can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory.
  • Lastly, we have Circuit Breakers which are protective devices that can be controlled with a remote switch  and are designed to protect the circuit from overloading or a short circuit.


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